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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 232-243

Vitreoretinal abnormalities in corona virus disease 2019 patients: What we know so far

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nathania Sutandi
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital, Jakarta
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_30_21

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic since December 2019. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory systems, it has become abundantly clear that it involves multiple organs including the heart, kidney, skin, and brain. Neuro-ophthalmic signs and anterior segment inflammation of the eyes were documented in COVID-19 patients recently. Small but growing number of literatures has also reported the cases of new onset vitreoretinal disorders related to COVID-19 infection. A comprehensive search from four online databases was done. Findings show vitreoretinal involvement in COVID-19 patients including the central retinal vein occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, reactivation of previous uveitis, chorioretinitis, macular hemorrhage, acute macular neuroretinopathy, paracentral acute middle maculopathy, vitritis with outer retinal abnormalities, varicella zoster virus-related acute retinal necrosis in immunocompromised patient, and other posterior segment pathological changes. The hypotheses for potential pathogenesis of these manifestations are direct viral ocular infection and thromboembolic complications secondary to the hyperinflammatory response. This is the first review article, which provides an overview of current evidence regarding the vitreoretinal manifestations in COVID-19 patients.

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