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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 359-366

Retinopathy of prematurity in Saudi Arabia: Exploring maternal risk factors

1 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nooran Badeeb
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Jeddah, Jeddah
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_72_20

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PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a preventable blinding disorder affecting preterm infants. To date, maternal risk factors have not been studied in Saudi Arabia. This study aims to identify possible maternal risk factors for any stage and type 1 ROP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 295 preterm infants screened for ROP between November 2013 and December 2018 at a Saudi Arabian tertiary-care hospital were included. We included infants with a gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and/or birth weight (BW) ≤1500 g. We analyzed 28 maternal and neonatal risk factors. RESULTS: The incidence of ROP at any stage and Type 1 were 31.9% and 7%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, the only maternal factor associated with any stage of ROP was spontaneous vaginal delivery (P = 0.049), but no maternal factor was an independent risk factor for type 1 ROP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified lower BW, lower gestational age and longer neonatal intensive care unit stay as independent risk factors for the development of ROP at any stage (P < 0.05). For Type 1 ROP, lower BW, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant independent risk factors (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The only maternal risk factor related to ROP was spontaneous vaginal delivery, which increased the risk of any stage of ROP. The single most predictive risk factor for any stage of ROP and Type 1 ROP was low BW. These findings emphasize the role of the obstetrician in promoting health care and modifying maternal risk factors to prevent preterm births related to a low BW.

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