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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 13 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-120

Online since Monday, March 13, 2023

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Advancing beyond our recent advances in ocular surface disease and corneal surgery p. 1
Bennie H Jeng
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Dry eye disease: A review of anti-inflammatory therapies p. 3
Annie Nguyen, Ajay Kolluru, Talia Beglarian
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common chronic ocular disease. DED can have a significant impact on visual function, causing disturbances to comfort, daily activities, and general quality of life. The varied nature of DED makes it difficult to point to a specific cause of the syndrome. However, current literature agrees that the inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Therapies targeted toward inflammation have shown varied success in the treatment of DED. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the prevalence and inflammatory pathophysiology of DED and discussion of the available anti-inflammatory therapies including the following: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and other hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal immunomodulators, biological tear replacement, antibiotics, dietary supplements, tea tree oil, and intense pulsed light.
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Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty in eyes with glaucoma p. 13
Bryan Le, Clemence Bonnet, Madeline Yung, Sophie X Deng
Endothelial keratoplasty has become the standard for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction. In Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), only the endothelium and Descemet membrane are transplanted, providing superior outcomes compared to Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). A substantial subset of patients who require DMEK have comorbid glaucoma. Even in eyes with complex anterior segment such as eyes with previous trabeculectomy or tube shunts, DMEK can restore meaningful vision and outperforms DSEK in terms of visual recovery, decreased rejection rate, and the need for high dose of topical steroids. However, accelerated endothelial cell loss and secondary graft failure have been described in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery, namely trabeculectomy and drainage device. During DMEK and DSEK procedures, raised intraocular pressure is required to attach the graft, which could worsen preexisting glaucoma or cause de novo glaucoma. Mechanisms of postoperative ocular hypertension include delayed air clearance, pupillary block, steroid response, and damage to angle structures. Medically treated glaucoma has increased risk for postoperative ocular hypertension. By understanding these additional complications and making appropriate modifications in surgical techniques and postoperative management, DMEK can be performed successfully and achieve very good visual outcome in eyes with glaucoma. Such modifications include precisely controlled unfolding technique, iridectomies that can help avoid pupillary block, tube shunts that can be trimmed to facilitate graft unfolding, air fill tension that can be adjusted, and postoperative steroid regimens that can be modified to decrease the risk for steroid response. Long-term survival of the DMEK graft, however, is shorter in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery than those without, as observed after other types of keratoplasty.
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In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of riboflavin, ultraviolet-A radiation, and combined riboflavin/ultraviolet-A radiation on ocular pathogens p. 21
Ashok Sharma, Rajan Sharma, Jagdish Chander, Verinder S Nirankari
PURPOSE: There is a lack of studies evaluating the antimicrobial effect of riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation using an epithelium-off cross-linking technique (Dresden protocol) in the literature. This study aimed to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of riboflavin and UVA radiation and combined riboflavin/UVA radiation on various ocular pathogens Dresden protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective and comparative study. This study included four groups: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Acanthamoeba. All the groups were tested 12 different times with riboflavin alone, UVA light alone, and combined riboflavin with UVA. The growth inhibition zones were measured. Descriptive statistics were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The main outcome was measurement and analysis of growth inhibition zones. RESULTS: The mean growth inhibition zones following riboflavin and UVA exposure were 9.70 ± 1.63 mm for P. aeruginosa and 7.70 ± 1.08 mm for S. aureus. The mean growth inhibition zones for P. aeruginosa were greater than for S. aureus (t = 2.395, P = 0.038). The mean growth inhibition zones for C. albicans and Acanthamoeba were 0. The mean growth inhibition zones following UVA exposure alone and riboflavin alone for all organisms were also 0. CONCLUSION: Combined riboflavin and UVA in the clinical dose was effective against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus but ineffective against C. albicans and Acanthamoeba. Our study shows the potential of combined riboflavin and UVA in the treatment of bacterial keratitis.
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Spatiotemporal gene targeting in the mouse corneal endothelium p. 28
JeongGoo Lee, Martin Heur
PURPOSE: The inducible Cre-ERT2 recombinase system allows for temporal control of gene targeting, and it is useful to studying adult function of genes that have critical developmental roles. The Zeb1flox/flox: UBC-CreERT2 mouse was generated to conditionally target Zeb1 to investigate its role in mesenchymal transition in the mouse corneal endothelium in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemizygous UBC-CreERT2 mice were crossed with homozygous mice harboring loxP-flanked Zeb1 alleles (Zeb1flox/flox) to generate the Zeb1flox/flox: UBC-CreERT2 mouse. 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) exposure leads to excision of exon 6 of Zeb1, resulting in a loss function allele in the Zeb1flox/flox: UBC-CreERT2 mouse. Intracameral 4-OHT injection further isolates Zeb1 targeting to the anterior chamber. Mesenchymal transition and induction of Zeb1 expression in the corneal endothelium was achieved using FGF2 in ex vivo organ culture. Gene expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by immunoblotting in the mouse corneal endothelium in vivo. RESULTS: Following Cre-mediated targeting of Zeb1 by intracameral 4-OHT injection in Zeb1flox/flox: UBC-CreERT2 mice, FGF2 treatment in ex vivo organ culture resulted in abrogation of Zeb1 mRNA and protein expression in the corneal endothelium. CONCLUSION: The data show Zeb1, a critical mediator of fibrosis in corneal endothelial mesenchymal transition, can be targeted by intracameral injection of 4-OHT in the mouse corneal endothelium in vivo. These results suggest that genes with critical developmental roles can be targeted at a specific time in the corneal endothelium to study its role in adult disease using an inducible Cre-Lox strategy.
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Dry eye syndrome model established in rabbits via mitomycin C injection in the lacrimal gland p. 34
I-Chan Lin, Yu-Chio Wang, Yi-Zhou Chen, Yu-Jun Tang, Ko-Hua Chen, Ching-Li Tseng
PURPOSE: To develop a new dry eye syndrome (DES) animal model by injecting mitomycin C (MMC) into the lacrimal glands (LGs) of rabbits evaluated by clinical examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A volume of 0.1 mL of MMC solution was injected in the LG and the infraorbital lobe of the accessory LG of rabbits for DES induction. Twenty male rabbits were separated into three groups, the control group, and different concentration of MMC, (MMC 0.25: 0.25 mg/mL or MMC 0.50: 0.5 mg/mL) were tested. Both MMC-treated groups received MMC twice injection on day 0 and day 7. Assessment of DES included changes in tear production (Schirmer's test), fluorescein staining pattern, conjunctival impression cytology, and corneal histological examination. RESULTS: After MMC injection, no obvious changes in the rabbit's eyes were noted by slit-lamp examination. Both the MMC 0.25 and the MMC 0.5 groups revealed decreased tear secretion after injection, and the MMC 0.25 group showed a continuous decrease in tear secretion up to 14 days. Fluorescent staining showed punctate keratopathy in both MMC-treated groups. In addition, both MMC-treated groups demonstrated decreased numbers of conjunctival goblet cells after injection. CONCLUSION: This model induced decreased tear production, punctate keratopathy, and decreased numbers of goblet cells, which are consistent with the current understanding of DES. Therefore, injecting MMC (0.25 mg/mL) into the LGs is an easy and reliable method to establish a rabbit DES model which can apply in new drug screening.
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Conjunctival inflammation and dry eye symptoms at day 100 post-transplantation do not predict risk for chronic graft-versus-host disease p. 43
Ankit M Shah, Anat Galor, Karla Mones, Pepita Jean, Krishna V Komanduri, Trent P Wang
PURPOSE: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). The objective of our study was to determine if early assessment of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and dry eye (DE) symptoms (via the DE Questionnaire-5 [DEQ-5]) had prognostic utility for the development of cGVHD and/or severe DE symptoms after HCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 25 individuals who underwent HCT and had MMP-9 (InflammaDry) and DEQ-5 performed on day 100 post-HCT (D + 100). Patients also completed the DEQ-5 at 6, 9, and 12 months post-HCT. The development of cGVHD was determined by chart review. RESULTS: Overall, 28% of patients developed cGVHD over a median follow-up of 229 days. At D + 100, 32% of patients had a positive MMP-9 in at least one eye and 20% had a DEQ-5 ≥6. However, neither the presence of a positive MMP-9 nor a DEQ-5 score ≥6 at D + 100 predicted the development of cGVHD (MMP-9: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-6.85, P = 0.58; DEQ-5 ≥6: HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.12-8.32, P = 1.00). In addition, neither of these measures predicted the development of severe DE symptoms (DEQ-5 ≥12) over time (MMP-9: HR: 1.77, 95% CI: 0.24-12.89, P = 0.58; DEQ-5 >6: HR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00-889.93, P = 0.49). CONCLUSION: Within our small cohort, DEQ-5 and MMP-9 assessment at D + 100 did not predict the development of cGVHD or severe DE symptoms.
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Fornix deepening reconstruction in conjunctivochalasis surgery p. 49
Anny M S Cheng, Olivia G Mead, Sean Tighe, Scheffer C G Tseng
PURPOSE: To assess the extent of inferior fornix shortening in conjunctivochalasis (CCh) and to evaluate whether fornix deepening reconstruction can restore the fornix tear reservoir in patients with CCh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of five patients (3 unilateral and 2 bilateral eyes, total 7 eyes) with CCh who underwent fornix deepening reconstruction with conjunctival recession and amniotic membrane transplantation. Postsurgical outcome measures included changes in fornix depth with correlation to basal tear volumes, symptoms, corneal staining, and conjunctival inflammation. RESULTS: For the three patients with unilateral surgery, both the fornix depth (8.3 ± 1.5 mm) and wetting length (9.3 ± 8.5 mm) of the operative eyes were less than the fellow eyes (10.3 ± 1.5 mm and 10.3 ± 8.5 mm, respectively). At 5.3 ± 2.7 months (range 1.7–8.7) postoperatively, the fornix depth increased significantly by 2.0 ± 1.1 mm (P = 0.02). Deepening of the fornix depth was accompanied by overwhelming symptomatic relief (91.5%) that could be subdivided into complete relief (87.5%) and partial relief (4%) of symptoms, with blurred vision being the most notably relieved symptom (P = 0.03). Furthermore, superficial punctate keratitis and conjunctival inflammation were significantly improved at follow-up (P = 0.008 and 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Deepening of the fornix to restore the tear reservoir is an important surgical objective that may change the tear hydrodynamic state to provide a stable tear film and improve outcomes in CCh.
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Clinical outcomes of prestripped, prestained, and preloaded Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (”P3 DMEK”) p. 55
Lena Juratli, Sana Qureshi, Nathan Liles, Munira Hussain, Christopher Hood, Shahzad I Mian
PURPOSE: Despite faster healing and reduced risk of rejection, some surgeons are hesitant to adopt Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) due to difficult intraoperative tissue preparation. Use of eye bank prestripped, prestained, and preloaded (p3) DMEK tissue can reduce the learning curve and risk of complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 167 eyes undergoing p3 DMEK and compared outcomes to a retrospective chart review of 201 eyes that underwent standard DMEK surgery. The primary outcomes were graft failure, detachment, and re-bubbling frequency. The secondary outcomes included baseline and postoperative visual acuity at months 1, 3, 6, and 12. Baseline and postoperative central corneal thickness (CCT) and endothelial cell counts (ECC) were collected. RESULTS: ECC decrease for p3 DMEK at 3, 6, and 12 months were 15.0%, 18.0%, and 21.0%, respectively. Forty (24%) of p3 DMEK and 72 (35.8%) of standard DMEK eyes had at least a partial graft detachment. There was no difference in CCT, graft failures, or re-bubble frequency. At 6 months, mean visual acuity was 20/26 and 20/24 for standard and p3 DMEK, respectively. Mean case time for p3 DMEK with phaco or p3 DMEK alone was 33 and 24 min, respectively. Mean case time for eyes undergoing DMEK with phaco or DMEK alone was 59 and 45 min, respectively. CONCLUSION: P3 DMEK tissue is safe and can provide excellent clinical outcomes that are comparable to standard DMEK tissue. Eyes undergoing p3 DMEK may have lower graft detachment and ECC loss.
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Etiology of corneal blindness in patients attending a tertiary care center in Kashmir p. 62
Afshan Kounser, Aalia Rasool, Junaid S Wani, Nadia Manzoor
PURPOSE: To study the etiology of corneal blindness in patients attending the cornea clinic of a tertiary care center of Kashmir. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study with prospective as well as retrospective recruitment of cases conducted over a period of 2 years. Patients with corneal blindness were included, and history regarding age, gender, laterality, residence, and occupation was taken. RESULTS: A total of 318 patients were studied with 151 (47.5%) males and 167 (52.5%) females; majority (48.8%) belonged to the age group of 31 to 50 years. 92.8% had unilateral and 7.2% had bilateral involvement, 57.2% belonged to rural and 42.8% to urban areas, and 61% were outdoor and 39% were indoor workers. The most common cause was infectious keratitis (57.54%) which included viral (25.8%), bacterial (23.27%), and fungal (8.5%). Bullous keratopathy accounted for 17.30% (aphakic 3.10% and pseudophakic 14.2%), followed by trauma 10.26% with mechanical trauma 6.29% and chemical trauma 3.46%. Advanced keratoconus accounted for 7.5% of cases and failed graft for 4.72%. Corneal dystrophies and degenerations accounted for 1.9% of cases. CONCLUSION: Majority of the causes of corneal blindness are preventable if addressed appropriately and timely with good health-care facilities at community level, education, awareness, and proper facilities, especially provision of protective tools and equipment at workplaces.
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Efficacy and safety of topical cyclosporine 0.1% in moderate-to-severe dry eye disease refractory to topical cyclosporine 0.05% regimen p. 68
Yuan-Hsi Chan, Chi-Chin Sun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 0.1% cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) following prior treatment with 0.05% cyclosporine A anionic emulsion (CsA AE) in moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with moderate-to-severe DED who had shown an inadequate response to twice-daily use of topical 0.05% CsA AE but showed a significant improvement after switching to 0.1% CsA CE daily. Dry eye parameters before and after CsA CE were evaluated by tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), cornea sensitivity, Schirmer's test without anesthetics, and Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients, including ten patients with Sjogren syndrome and five patients with rheumatoid arthritis, were reviewed. After a 2-month course of treatment with topical 0.1% CsA CE, significant improvements were noted for CFS (P < 0.001), corneal sensitivity (P = 0.008), and TBUT (P = 0.01). Efficacy was similar in the autoimmune versus nonautoimmune group. 39.1% of patients reported treatment-related adverse events, while the majority was transient instillation pain. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure had no significant changes during the study. CONCLUSION: In patients with moderate to severe DED refractory to 0.05% cyclosporine, shifting to 0.1% cyclosporine showed improvement in objective signs but with lower treatment tolerability in the short term.
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A modified surgical technique of fibrin glue-assisted double bipedicle conjunctival flaps for patients with ocular surface diseases p. 75
Jen-Yu Liu, Wei-Lun Huang, Yun-Han Hsieh, Jo-Hsuan Wu, Chien-Jung Huang, Wei-Li Chen
This study aimed to describe and investigate the surgical outcome and complications of fibrin glue-assisted double bipedicle conjunctival flaps (CFs) (FADCOF), an alternative surgical technique that restores a stable ocular surface in patients with painful blinding ocular surface disease combined with a shortage of bulbar conjunctiva. Six eyes of six patients with painful blinding ocular surface disease were enrolled in this study. All patients had inadequate superior or inferior conjunctiva tissue to cover the whole corneal surface owing to previous surgeries or ocular surface diseases. These patients received FADCOF between 2009 and 2019. The main outcome included surgical success rate, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, ocular inflammation score, and postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined as resolution of initial ocular complaints and restoration of a stable ocular surface with no flap melting, retraction, or dehiscence resulting in re-exposure of the corneal surface. All of the six eyes (100%) achieved surgical success. All patients reported significant improvement in subjective symptoms and complete resolution of ocular pain after the surgery (VAS pain score: 6.5 ± 0.5 preoperatively to 0.0 ± 0.0 at 1 month). Ocular inflammation score decreased significantly from a presurgical value of 1.83 ± 0.69 to 0.33 ± 0.47 1 month after the surgery. No postoperative complication was found during the long-term follow-up (range: 12–82 months). FADCOF is a reliable alternative for patients with painful blinding ocular surface diseases unsuitable for single total CF surgery. This surgical technique yields fast ocular surface stabilization, satisfactory recovery, and low complication rates.
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Peripheral ulcerative keratitis in a patient with granulomatous rosacea p. 80
Fang-Chi Hsiao, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Ching-Hsi Hsiao, Kuan-Jen Chen, David Hui-Kang Ma, Wei-Chi Wu, Hung-Chi Chen
A 24-year-old woman visited our emergency department due to intermittent dull pain in the right eye, blurred vision, foreign body sensation for 3 weeks, and progressive facial rash with pustules for 3 months. She had a history of recurring skin rash on her face and extremities since early adolescence. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) was diagnosed based on slit-lamp examination and corneal topography and then granulomatous rosacea (GR) based on clinical manifestations and skin pathology. Topical prednisolone, artificial tears, oral doxycycline, oral prednisolone, and topical clindamycin were administered. After 1 month, PUK progressed to corneal perforation probably due to eye rubbing. The corneal lesion was repaired with a glycerol-preserved corneal graft. A dermatologist prescribed oral isotretinoin for 2 months in conjunction with topical betamethasone gradually tapered for 14 months. After 34 months of follow-up, no signs of skin and ocular recurrence were noted, and the cornea graft was intact. In conclusion, PUK may present with GR, and oral isotretinoin may be an effective therapy for PUK in the setting of GR.
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Klebsiella keratitis presenting as a ring infiltrate in an adolescent girl p. 84
Richa Dhiman, Nancy Sharma, Jyoti Chauhan
The purpose of the study was to report a unique case of Klebsiella keratitis presenting as a ring infiltrate in an adolescent girl. A 16-year-old girl presented with decreased vision in the right eye preceding an episode of fever with a rash associated with burning micturition. The patient was examined after taking appropriate consent. The slit-lamp examination revealed a ring-shaped corneal infiltrate with an epithelial defect in her right eye. Corneal scrapings were sent for microbiological evaluation which revealed Gram-negative rods and culture identified it as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonies. The patient showed a good response to topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin. For her systemic complaints, the pediatrician did a thorough investigative workup out of which blood culture showed growth of K. pneumoniae. Hence, intravenous antibiotics were given based on the antibiogram report and the patient recovered. After 2 weeks, a paracentral infiltrate in her left eye was noted followed by anterior uveitis. The patient responded well to the topical course of steroids along with aminoglycosides. Four months later, she had a recurrence of anterior uveitis in the right eye preceded by fever. Blood investigations were negative. Hence, a diagnosis of recurrent uveitis secondary to endogenous infection was made and the patient was successfully treated with a short course of topical steroids. The patient is on follow-up for the past 6 months and maintaining the best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 OU with normal intraocular pressure and quiet anterior chamber (AC). This is the first clinical report describing a ring infiltrate in endogenous Klebsiella keratitis and emphasizes thorough workup for prompt treatment.
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Steroid-responsive unilateral keratouveitis following systemic treatment in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus and leishmaniasis p. 88
Erin Su, Jonathan E Lu, Kristina Voss
Ocular leishmaniasis, a rare form of vector-borne parasitic infection, can affect the adnexa, retina, uvea, and cornea. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Leishmania may be a distinct clinical entity as the pathogens act synergistically, enhancing each other's pathogenicity, and leading to more severe forms of the disease. Ocular leishmaniasis in the setting of HIV coinfection most commonly causes anterior granulomatous uveitis, for which the etiology can be either active ocular infection or posttreatment inflammatory phenomenon. Keratitis is not considered to be associated with HIV but has rarely been seen from direct parasite invasion or in association with miltefosine. The judicious use of steroids in the treatment of ocular leishmaniasis is critical as steroid use is paramount to the treatment of uveitis associated with posttreatment inflammatory phenomenon but can worsen the prognosis when given in the setting of active, untreated infection. Here, we present a case of unilateral keratouveitis in a leishmaniasis and HIV-coinfected male following completion of systemic antileishmanial therapy. The keratouveitis completely resolved with only the addition of topical steroids. The rapid resolution with steroids suggests that keratitis, not only uveitis, can be an immune-mediated phenomenon in post- or ongoing-treatment individuals.
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Herpes endotheliitis following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy p. 93
Majid Moshirfar, Melody Ziari, Christian Peterson, Neil Kelkar, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Phillip Hoopes
Herpes endotheliitis is a less common manifestation of herpes keratitis, and characteristic examination findings include corneal edema and the presence of keratic precipitates. Infection may be primary or secondary to herpes virus reactivation following exposure to a potential trigger such as physiologic stress or environmental factors. Ocular surgery, including laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), can trigger reactivation in patients with or without a documented history of previous herpes infection. We present two patients with visually insignificant stromal scarring who denied a previous history of herpetic disease and developed herpes endotheliitis following LASIK and PRK. We demonstrate the importance of an appropriately thorough preoperative evaluation and further workup of any corneal abnormalities, even if such findings initially appear inconsequential.
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Corneal ectasia after an incomplete flap creation in an abandoned laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis p. 97
Hsiao-Fan Tung, Ho-Ling Chen, Yu-Ling Liu, Chang-Ping Lin
To report a unique case of a 31-year-old woman developing corneal ectasia after an abandoned laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure with incomplete flap creation without laser ablation. A 31-year-old Taiwanese woman presented with corneal ectasia after a failed LASIK with an incomplete flap creation without laser procedure in her right eye 4 years ago. A visible scar was observed in the flap margin from the 7 to 10 o'clock position. The auto refractometer revealed myopia with high astigmatism, −1.25/−7.25 × 30. Keratometry was 47.00/40.75 D. In contrast, no sign of keratoconus was found in the fellow eye, which did not experience any surgery. Corneal tomography indicated that the incomplete flap scar was compatible with the main area of corneal ectasia. Furthermore, anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed a deep cutting plane and a relatively thin corneal bed. Both findings explained the cause for corneal ectasia. Corneal ectasia can occur whenever corneal structure or integrity is compromised.
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Severe ocular alkali injury managed with an externally sutured amniotic membrane and customized symblepharon ring p. 101
Sophia S Lam, Bonnie A Sklar, Marisa Schoen, Christopher J Rapuano
Alkali injuries are ocular emergencies that require immediate evaluation and therapy to preserve vision. Severe alkali injuries can result in long-term vision-threatening sequelae including symblepharon, corneal ulceration, corneal scarring, limbal stem cell deficiency, xerophthalmia, cicatricial changes of the eyelid and adnexa, glaucoma, uveitis, and permanent vision loss. Treatment is aimed at neutralizing the pH, controlling inflammation, and restoring the ocular surface. Here, we present the case of a 35-year-old male who sustained direct ocular exposure to sodium hydroxide, resulting in significant corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects despite aggressive initial medical therapy. The patient subsequently received a large, externally sutured amniotic membrane (AM) with a customized symblepharon ring to promote healing. The corneal and conjunctival defects resolved, and at 4 months after the initial injury, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/25. Clinicians should be aware of the various surgical techniques to place an AM transplantation and identify the best strategy based on clinical findings and the extent and severity of the injury.
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Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Highly accessed article p. 106
Charles C Lin, Wen-Shin Lee
Gauging stromal dissection depth is crucial to successfully perform deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) offers a promising tool to aid DALK surgery but visualization of surgical maneuvers is impaired due to artifacts from metallic instruments. We describe a novel surgical technique utilizing suture-assisted iOCT guidance that facilitates clear visualization of corneal dissection planes during DALK. A stromal dissection tunnel is performed with a Fogla probe and its depth is subsequently identified by threading a 1 cm segment of 8-0 nylon into the tunnel. In contrast to the Fogla probe, the 8-0 nylon is conspicuously highlighted on iOCT. If the tunnel is too superficial, a separate, deeper stromal tunnel can be created and visualized again with the 8-0 nylon suture and iOCT. This iterative process facilitates a deep stromal dissection, increasing the probability of successful big-bubble formation and Descemet baring DALK surgery. This technique was utilized for a successful big-bubble DALK in a patient with severe keratoconus.
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Unmasking of subclinical keratoconus with Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty in Fuchs endothelial dystrophy p. 110
Madeline Yung, Jennifer Y Li
We report a case of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) with concurrent forme fruste keratoconus (KCN) that was unmasked with Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in the right eye, but not with Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the left eye. The patient was a 65-year-old female with FECD who underwent uncomplicated combination cataract surgery and DMEK in the right eye. She subsequently developed intractable monocular diplopia associated with inferior displacement of the thinnest point of the cornea and subtle steepening noted on posterior corneal curvature on Scheimpflug tomography. The patient was diagnosed with forme fruste KCN. Altering the surgical plan to combine cataract surgery and DSAEK in the left eye successfully circumvented the development of symptomatic visual distortion. This is the first case providing comparable data from contralateral eyes in the same patient regarding the outcome of DMEK versus DSAEK in eyes with concurrent forme fruste KCN. DMEK appeared to unmask posterior corneal irregularities and resulted in visual distortion, whereas DSAEK did not. The additional stromal tissue in DSAEK grafts appears to help normalize alterations of the posterior corneal curvature and may be the preferred endothelial keratoplasty for patients with concurrent mild KCN.
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Intraocular foreign body presenting as recalcitrant hypopyon anterior uveitis p. 114
Anand Balasubramaniam, Sailatha Ganesh, Choyan Kilachaparambath Minija, Nidhi Dubey
A 38-year-old male with a history of trauma presented to us with pain and decreased vision in the left eye (LE). Previously, the patient had been diagnosed with hypopyon uveitis and was prescribed topical steroids. We performed slit-lamp examination of the LE and found exudates in the anterior chamber (AC) extending from 6 to 9 o'clock, along with circumciliary congestion and pigmented keratic precipitates. We made a diagnosis of infectious anterior hypopyon uveitis; however, all of its causes were ruled out upon the necessary investigations, which returned normal results. The patient was started on topical and oral antibiotics, and subsequently, there was complete hypopyon resolution. Five months later, he presented with similar complaints. An examination revealed a black elevated lesion in the AC at 8 o'clock suspicious of an intraocular foreign body (IOFB), along with 1 mm hypopyon. An X-ray orbit examination confirmed the IOFB presence, and the IOFB was surgically removed from the AC. Three weeks after this surgery, the patient presented with a recurrence of similar symptoms. The nasal pterygium adjacent to the location of the previously removed IOFB was inflamed with an underlying black elevated limbal nodule, which was determined to likely be a remnant of the IOFB in the subconjunctival space. Here, we report a case of penetrating IOFB that was initially detected in the AC. Its remnant extraocular component persisted in the subconjunctival space, and its incomplete removal led to recurrent inflammation.
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Unusual presentation of a vascularized iris lesion in an infant p. 117
Sasikala Elizabeth Anilkumar, Parag K Shah, VR Saravanan, Radhakrishnan Shanthi, Narendran Kalpana
We report an unusual presentation of a 10-month-old girl with left eye (LE) redness and watering. Evaluation showed an iris vascular lesion and lens opacity in her LE. Child underwent USG B-scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy, by which an extensive mass lesion arising from iris and ciliary body with absent calcification was revealed. Following extensive evaluation, child underwent cataract extraction and trans-scleral total excision of the mass lesion. Histopathology proved it as juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) with vascular proliferation. JXG is a rare benign self-limiting dermatologic disorder affecting mainly infants and small children. Ocular lesions are the most common extracutaneous manifestation. Cataract in JXG is less frequently reported. This case is reported due to its rarity and as it presented solely as an intraocular lesion with combined diffuse infiltration into ciliary body and cataract which is unusual. Early recognition and systematic approach helped in sight saving and organ salvaging.
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