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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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The relation between the severity of reading disorder and visual functions among children with dyslexia


1 Refractive Errors Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Refractive Errors Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences; Department of Speech Therapy, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Refractive Errors Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences; Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Basir Eye Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Javad Heravian Shandiz,
Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.tjo_33_21

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between the severity of reading disorder and visual functions among children with dyslexia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included 32 dyslexic children selected from two centers for learning disabilities in Mashhad, Iran. Dyslexics were then classified as mild, moderate, and severe based on an instrument used to determine the severity of their reading disorder. Complete optometric examinations to measure visual acuity, refractive errors, latent and manifest deviations, stereoacuity, and amplitude of accommodation were performed for all participants. The correlation between visual functions among dyslexics and their reading disorder severity was investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants in this study was 8.1 ± 0.8 years. Among participants, 40.6%, 31.3%, and 28.1% presented with severe, moderate, and mild levels of reading difficulties, respectively. Only exophoria significantly correlated with the severity of reading disorders. No significant correlation was found between other visual functions and the severity of reading disorders in dyslexic children. CONCLUSION: We found that higher exophoria at near has a significant correlation with the severity of dyslexia. A complete and detailed eye examination of patients with dyslexia and correcting their visual impairments might be helpful.


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    -  Darvishi A
    -  Rad DS
    -  Atigh SB
    -  Hamidi A
    -  Shandiz JH
    -  Baghini AS
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