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REVIEW ARTICLE
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Review article: Diagnosis and management of enlarged extraocular muscles


1 Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, California, United States of America
2 Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
3 Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, California, United States of America

Correspondence Address:
Mahmoud Mostafa Abouelatta,
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, El Bahr Street, Tanta 31111, El Gharbia

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2211-5056.360560

Extraocular muscle (EOM) enlargement may be due to a variety of causes. These causes can be classified in three ways: according to pathogenesis and histopathological features, according to the site, and according to the clinical features. Diagnosis of the cause is dependent upon history, clinical examination, and investigations. Imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy is typically necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment of the patient must be directed toward the specific cause. This review emphasizes important clinical and pathological guidelines for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients with EOM enlargement.


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    -  Abouelatta MM
    -  Shalaby OE
    -  Awara AM
    -  Kikkawa DO
    -  Eldesouky MA
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