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Peripheral defocus as it relates to myopia progression: A mini-review

1 Department of Opthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; The Myopia Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel
2 Naomi Vision Boutique, Jerusalem, Israel
3 Department of Opthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
4 Optometry and Vision Science, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
5 Department of Opthalmology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem; Department of Ophthalmology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel
6 The Myopia Center, Rishon LeZion; Department of Opthalmology, Enaim Refractive Surgery Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Correspondence Address:
Naomi London,
5 Even Israel, Jerusalem
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjo.TJO-D-22-00100

Myopia is the most common refractive error in the world and has reached a pandemic level. The potential complications of progressive myopia have inspired researchers to attempt to understand the sources of myopia and axial elongation and to develop modalities to arrest progression. Considerable attention has been given over the past few years to the myopia risk factor known as hyperopic peripheral blur, which is the focus of this review. It will discuss the primary theories believed to be the cause of myopia and the parameters considered to contribute to and influence the effect of peripheral blur, such as the surface retinal area of blur or the depth of blur. The multitude of optical devices designed to provide peripheral myopic defocus will be mentioned, including bifocal and progressive addition ophthalmic lenses, peripheral defocus single-vision ophthalmic lenses, orthokeratology lenses, and bifocal or multifocal center distance soft lenses, as well as their effectivity as discussed in the literature to date.

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