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   2013| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 20, 2013

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Uveitis: A search for a cause
Arshee S Ahmed, Jyotirmay Biswas
October-December 2013, 3(4):134-140
This article aims to review the current literature to identify the various laboratory and investigative modalities that can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients with uveitis. Although laboratory tests such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, and human leukocyte antigen typing among others have limited utility in the diagnosis of uveitis, they provide supportive evidence. Results of serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have proven to be of significant importance in diagnosing diseases such as toxoplasmosis, and the use of ocular samples such as aqueous and vitreous has greatly increased the diagnostic reliability. Imaging techniques play a major role in the diagnosis of posterior uveitis. Fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and lately, autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography provide information about the diagnosis of uveitis disorders and are also useful for monitoring progression, complications, and response to treatment. The use of ultrasonography and ultrasound biomicroscopy provides useful information in eyes with chronic uveitis where complications such as retinal detachment and cyclitic membranes are suspected and hazy media precludes a thorough clinical examination. Radiological investigations such as computerized tomography aid in the diagnosis and management of systemic disorders such as tuberculosis or sarcoidosis.
  2,456 141 3
Vascular endothelial growth factor and its inhibitor in age-related macular degeneration
Xiying Wang, Masahito Ohji
October-December 2013, 3(4):128-133
Intraocular angiogenesis is considered the leading cause for severe loss of vision, and contributes to many ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinopathy of prematurity, the main causes of blindness in developed countries.[1] An enormous body of work has demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a prominent role as mediator in the procedure of pathological angiogenesis. This makes VEGF a potential target for the medical therapies of retinal angiogenesis and some clinical trials have proved the efficacy of anti-VEGF strategies. This review evaluates the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and provides an overview of recent developments in therapeutic modalities.
  1,947 148 3
Ocular manifestations as the initial presentations of Wilson disease
Jinn-Liang Lin, Ming-Shan He, Rong-Kung Tsai
October-December 2013, 3(4):173-175
A 19-year-old woman presented with Kayser-Fleischer ring in her corneas and sunflower cataracts in both eyes. There were no coexisting neurologic or hepatic symptoms, both brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abdominal echo showed minimal changes. Serum copper concentration (Cu) and ceruloplasmin were abnormal, and 24-hour urine collection showed abnormally high levels of copper (348.0 μg/day). A diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. We report the interesting case of rare manifestations of Wilson disease; initially with ocular presentations without neurologic symptoms. Early detection and treatment of Wilson disease is possible in patients with only ocular manifestations, and can prevent a catastrophic sequel.
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Changes in corneal curvature after wearing the orthokeratology lens
Chien-Chih Chou, Yu-Chuen Huang, Yi-Yu Tsai, Jane-Ming Lin, Wen-Lu Chen, Hui-Ju Lin
October-December 2013, 3(4):156-159
Introduction: The orthokeratology lens (OK lens) is designed to reshape the cornea and correct refraction error. Owing to the convenience of ceasing the use of glasses during the day, the use of the OK lens is increasing in myopic children. In this study, changes in corneal curvature and astigmatism after wearing the OK lens were analyzed. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 65 children (130 eyes) who underwent full and regular examinations. None of the participants had any ocular disease other than myopia and astigmatism. The OK lenses used in this study were four-zone, reverse-geometry lenses. The corneal curvature of each patient was checked annually after the patients discontinued daily wearing of the OK lens for 10 days. Student t test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were performed to compare the results. Results: The radius of corneal curvature showed a progressive annual increase with significant differences, both in the steepest and flattest radius of the corneal curvature (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The mean radius of the steepest and flattest corneal curvature increased significantly from baseline to the following years consecutively (all p < 0.001). Nevertheless, astigmatism did not change significantly in any of the tests. Conclusion: Corneal curvature changed as the patients grew older. There was a statistically significant increase in the radius of the corneal curvature in the myopic children studied. For correct fit of OK lenses, the radius of the corneal curvature should be regularly checked prior to dispensing a new set of lenses.
  1,880 110 3
Endogenous candida endophthalmitis in South Taiwan: A 10-year retrospective study
Shih-Hao Wang, Jong-Jer Lee, Yung-Jen Chen, Hsi-Kung Kuo
October-December 2013, 3(4):146-150
Purpose: To investigate the clinical manifestations and the results of the management of endogenous candida endophthalmitis (ECE) at our hospital. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review conducted between September 2002 and September 2012. Results: Our study included 24 eyes of 14 patients. The culture results revealed Candida albicans in 11 cases and Candida tropicalis in three cases. Diabetes mellitus, cancer, and intravenous catheter implantation were the most important risk factors for ECE. A systemic antifungal agent combined with intravitreal injection or vitrectomy was our method for treating these cases and the complications. The outcomes were generally poor, with a final visual acuity (VA) of better than 0.1 in 10 cases, counting finger to 0.1 in six cases, light perception to hand motion in six cases, and no light perception in two cases. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory visual outcome in ECE is related to poor initial VA and complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary for these patients.
  1,834 102 3
Therapeutic dilemma in serpiginous choroiditis
Chieh-Yin Cheng, San-Ni Chen, Jiunn-Feng Hwang, Chun-Ju Lin
October-December 2013, 3(4):160-162
A 43-year-old woman had blurred vision in the left eye for 4 years. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye. The fundus showed grayish-yellow, jigsaw-puzzle-shaped lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaries emanating from the optic nerve head in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography showed late leakage in active lesions and hypofluorescence in hyperpigmented areas. Oral prednisolone and cyclosporine were given first. However, after posterior subtenon triamcinolone injections in both eyes and one intravitreal triamcinolone injection in the left eye, macular edema worsened. Steroid-induced central serous chorioretinopathy was suspected, so we tapered prednisolone rapidly and changed to azathioprine. Subsequent optical coherence tomography demonstrated retinal pigment epithelial detachment in the right eye subsided gradually. Fundus autofluorescence imaging showed progressively quiescent lesions. Unfortunately, acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic stroke developed after 6 weeks azathioprine. In the acute phase of serpiginous choroiditis, corticosteroids are most commonly used. However, steroid therapy may be complicated with steroid-induced central serous chorioretinopathy. When we shift to other systemic immunosuppressive regimens, such as azathioprine, the possibility of acute myocardial infarction should be kept in mind.
  1,782 82 -
Long-term results of extraction of childhood cataracts and intraocular lens implantation
I-Ting Sun, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Yung-Jen Chen, Po-Chiung Fang, Sue-Ann Lin, Pei-Chang Wu, Min-Tse Kuo, Mei-Ching Teng
October-December 2013, 3(4):151-155
Purpose: To study the long-term changes in refraction and visual outcome after extraction of congenital/ developmental cataracts and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children. Methods: Cataract extraction and IOL implantation were performed in 33 eyes of 21 children aged 4–59 months. Refraction and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured 4–5 years later. The cases were grouped by age at surgery: Group A: ≤1 year, Group B: 1–3 years, and Group C: >3 years. Results: The mean myopic change was significantly lower in bilateral (mean −3.88 ± 2.47 D) than in unilateral (mean −7.68 ± 5.04 D) cases (p = 0.003). The latest BCVA values were logMAR 0.76 ± 0.86 and logMAR 0.43 ± 0.32 in unilateral and bilateral cases, respectively (p = 0.055). The mean myopic change values were −5.17 ± 4.49 D, −6.34 ± 3.44 D, and −3.45 ± 2.50 D in Groups A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.104). The latest BCVA values were logMAR 0.84 ± 0.46, logMAR 0.55 ± 0.64, and logMAR 0.14 ± 0.17 in Groups A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Best-corrected Snellen visual acuity ≥0.2 was achieved in most patients. We found less myopic shift in patients with bilateral cataracts and better visual outcomes in patients who underwent cataract surgery at older ages, probably because the cataracts in older patients were less dense initially and thus less likely to cause deprivation amblyopia.
  1,754 90 3
Intravitreal dexamethasone implant for a vitrectomized eye with diabetic macular edema
Tsu-Hua Chen, Jia-Kang Wang, Shu-Wen Chang
October-December 2013, 3(4):163-167
A 71-year-old man suffered from diabetic vitreous hemorrhage in his left pseudophakic eye. He received 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and removal of taut posterior hyaloid traction in June 2011. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated cystoid macular edema 1 month after the operation. The macular edema did not respond to macular grid laser. Intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) was injected, which was effective for managing diabetic macular edema initially. The edema recurred 3 months following the bevacizumab injection. Subsequent intravitreal triamcinolone 1 mg also failed to treat the macular edema. Ozurdex, a dexamethasone implant, was injected intravitreally in January 2012. The central foveal thickness decreased, and visual acuity improved. The effect persisted for 6 months. There was no systemic or ocular adverse event during the follow-up period. This intravitreal dexa-methasone implant could be helpful for diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized eyes.
  1,717 83 -
Myopic macular hole-associated retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy
San-Ni Chen, Kun-Hsien Li, Jiunn-Feng Hwang
October-December 2013, 3(4):141-145
Purpose: The objective of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and surgical results of patients suffering from retinal detachment, which was induced by a myopic macular hole and complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy, but without previous vitreoretinal surgery. Methods: Interventional case series of 22 eyes in 20 patients with excessive myopia and macular hole-associated retinal detachment complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy were scrutinized retrospectively. All eyes had undergone par plana vitrectomy, including peeling of the epiretinal membrane, internal limiting membrane around the macular hole, and silicone oil or perfluoropropane (C3F8) retinal tamponade. An encircling buckle was also inserted in some of the eyes. Eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery were excluded from this review. Results: The average age of patients was 68.3 ± 7.17 years, average duration of symptoms prior to seeing an ophthalmologist 8.36 ± 4.14 months, and average axial length 30.01 ± 1.81 mm. Nine of the 20 patients had bilateral retinal detachment. The average number of operations performed was 1.36 ± 0.58. The success rate of the initial surgery was 63.3%, which improved to 90.9% in subsequent procedures. Conclusion: A macular hole with proliferative vitreoretinopathy is associated with retinal detachment for a long duration. Retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity could be achieved in most eyes after a surgical intervention.
  1,698 101 1
Central retinal vein occlusion after gamma knife radiosurgery for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula
Yen-Chun Lin, Chang-Hsien Ou, Cheng-Loong Liang, Huan-Chen Hsu, Shih-Hao Tsai, Yan-Ming Chen
October-December 2013, 3(4):168-172
A 70-year-old man presented to our clinic complaining of binocular diplopia and persistent redness in the left eye for 5 months. Conjunctival vessels were dilated and tortuous in both eyes. Intraocular pressure was 16 mmHg in the right eye and 23 mmHg in the left eye. Complete bilateral sixth cranial nerve and partial left third cranial nerve palsies were noted. Brain computed tomography and cerebral angiography revealed a Barrow Type C dural arteriovenous fistula. The patient underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at a dose of 18 Gy and a target volume of 3.3 mL. Within 1 month of GKRS, the patient reported an improvement in diplopia, but 4 months following the procedure, he experienced micropsia, metamorphopsia, and darkness in his left eye. Prominent flame-shaped hemorrhages and retinal edema, the typical picture of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), developed in his left eye. Intraocular pressure in this eye was controlled with antiglaucoma topical medication. 5 months later, the left retina had appeared normal. Antiglaucoma drops were gradually tapered and eventually discontinued. The GKRS, used in recent decades, is noninvasive and effective in the treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula. However, CRVO can occur after GKRS. Here, we present, in detail, a clinical course of CRVO that developed after GKRS. Our findings may be useful for further understanding of this rare complication.
  1,699 88 -

October-December 2013, 3(4):127-127
  1,471 113 -
Thanks to reviewers

October-December 2013, 3(4):176-176
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