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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| July-September  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 10, 2016

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Challenges in the management of glaucoma in developing countries
Nadeem Hafeez Butt, Muhammad Hammad Ayub, Muhammad Hassaan Ali
July-September 2016, 6(3):119-122
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.01.004  PMID:29018725
Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy characterized by normal to raised intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field defects, loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, thinning of the neuroretinal rim, and cupping of the optic disc. IOP reduction by medical, laser, or surgical therapies remains the only clinically proven treatment of glaucoma. The challenges in glaucoma management are diverse. They include early detection and diagnosis, setting of appropriate target IOP, choice of treatment, monitoring of quality of life and sight, and compliance with the treatment. Early diagnosis can be made by assessing optic nerve structure using imaging devices and optic nerve function through perimetry. Reducing IOP and controlling its fluctuations are considered to be the most important factors in limiting progression of glaucoma. Selection of the best suitable therapy out of medical, surgical, or laser treatment options is yet another management challenge. Patients suffering from glaucoma experience poor quality of life owing to the diagnosis itself, functional visual loss, inconvenience and cost of treatment, and side effects of treatment. All these factors lead to poor compliance, adherence, and persistence to treatment, and further progression of the disease. It is, therefore, important that ophthalmologists keep all the aforementioned factors in mind when managing patients with glaucoma.
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Cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe ocular complications–phenotypes and genetic predispositions
Mayumi Ueta
July-September 2016, 6(3):108-118
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.06.001  PMID:29018724
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reaction of the skin and mucosa, such as the ocular surface, oral cavity, and genitals. In patients with extensive skin detachment and a poor prognosis, the condition is called toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Severe ocular complications (SOCs) appear in some–but not all–SJS/TEN patients who are diagnosed by dermatologists, and cold medicines including multi-ingredient cold medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the main causative drugs particularly for SJS/TEN with SOCs and all SJS and TEN. In this review, we focus on the genetic predisposition of cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) with SOCs. CM-SJS/ TEN with SOCs was strongly associated with HLA-A*02:06 and significantly associated with HLA-B*44:03 in Japanese individuals, significantly associated with HLA-B*44:03 in Indian and Brazilian individuals, and associated with HLA-A*02:06 in Korean individuals. In the first genome-wide association study (GWAS), we found an association between the prostaglandin E receptor 3 (PTGER3) gene and SJS/ TEN with SOCs. In this study, we focused on CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs and found that the association of CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs became stronger than all SJS/TEN with SOCs. In the second GWAS, we found an association between the IKZFi gene and CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs not only in Japanese, but also in Korean and Indian populations. Moreover, we found that TSHZ2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also showed especially low p values in the Japanese population; however, this association was not found in the Korean population. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between susceptibility genes, and found multiplicative interactions of HLA-A*02:06 and TLR3 SNPs and additive interactions of HLA-A*02:06 and PTGER3 SNPs.
  10 2,251 177
Colored corn starch dust explosion-related ocular injuries at a Taiwan water park: A preliminary report from a single medical center
Yi-Lin Liao, Lung-Kun Yeh, Yueh-Ju Tsai, Shin-Yi Chen
July-September 2016, 6(3):123-126
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.05.004  PMID:29018726
Purpose: To elucidate the manifestations of ocular injuries in the colored corn starch dust explosion at a Taiwan water park. Methods: This is a retrospective, non-comparative, consecutive-interventional case series. Fifty explosion-injury patients on 27 June 2015 treated at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, were included. Thorough ophthalmic examinations were based on emergent triage and consecutive ophthalmological consultations. Multiple ocular and systemic parameters were assessed. Results: Of the 100 eyes in the 50 cases reviewed, 22 cases were male and 28 cases were female. The mean age was 22.08 ± 4.64 years, and the mean burn total body surface area (TBSA) of patients was 45.92 ± 20.30%. Of the 50 patients, 20 had Grade 1 ocular burns, and the others were without ocular involvement. Two of the 20 cases that presented Grade 1 ocular burns died within 1 month due to other systemic complications. The most common ocular manifestations among those with ocular injuries included periocular swelling (75%), followed by conjunctival chemosis (65%), conjunctival hyperemia (50%), singed eyelashes (20%), cornea epithelial defects (10%), and punctate keratopathy (5%). It is worth mentioning that one patient developed herpes simplex keratitis due to stress 3 weeks after being burned. Half of the 50 patients had facial burns. Specifically, the patients with a greater TBSA presented more significant ocular-burn manifestations than those patients with lower TBSA. Conclusion: Prompt ophthalmologic consultations are particularly necessary for mass burn-casualty patients with facial burns, inhalation injuries, and greater TBSA. The inspection and control of all ignition sources and the manipulation of dust with low concentrations and in an open space are crucial factors to prevent future dust explosions.
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Comparative study of changes of corneal curvatures and uncorrected distance visual acuity prior to and after corneal collagen crosslinking: 1-year results
Masoud Safarzadeh, Nader Nasiri, Asgar Doostdar, Mohammad Kamali
July-September 2016, 6(3):127-130
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.06.003  PMID:29018727
Background/Purpose: Keratoconus is the most common primary corneal ectatic disease and has considerable importance in public health. Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a procedure to mitigate progression of keratoconus and reduce demand for corneal transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CXL on corneal topographic and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) by Oculus Pentacam in the 15–30-year-old population. Methods: In this descriptive–analytic study, we enrolled 38 eyes of 27 patients suffering from progressive keratoconus who were candidates for CXL. UDVA and the anterior and posterior corneal curvatures assessed prior to and 12 months after CXL. Data were analyzed by the paired t test and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One year after the CXL, mean UDVA significantly improved 0.1 ± 0.25 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (p = 0.012). Changes for steep keratometry values, flat keratometry, and mean keratometry on the anterior corneal surface were statistically significant (all p < 0.005). However, the difference observed in maximum keratometry and astigmatism was not significant (p = 0.421 and p = 0.745, respectively). After 12 months, all four keratometry values on the posterior corneal surface had increased significantly (p < 0.005), while no significant change observed in astigmatism (p = 0.303). Conclusion: Corneal collagen crosslinking has been revealed as an effective and minimally invasive intervention for the treatment of progressive keratoconus that can improve UDVA.
  6 1,763 122
Bilateral retinal pigment epithelial rips in hypertensive choroidopathy
Yuan-Che Tai, Jerry Chien-Chieh Huang, Chi-Chin Sun, Ling Yeung
July-September 2016, 6(3):150-154
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.08.001  PMID:29018732
Severe systemie hypertension can cause significant damage to the eye. Although hypertensive retinop-athy is a well-known complication, hypertensive optic neuropathy and hypertensive choroidopathy are much less common. The aim of this article is to report an unusual case of hypertensive choroidopathy with bullous exudative retinal detachments in both eyes. The retinal detachments spontaneously resolved after blood pressure was controlled. However, multiple large retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) rips were found in both eyes. These RPE rips may be related to severe choroidal ischemia, and their locations may be compatible with the watershed zones of the choroidal perfusions.
  5 2,068 148
Effect of potassium channel openers in acute and chronic models of glaucoma
Shital S Panchal, Anita A Mehta, Devdas D Santani
July-September 2016, 6(3):131-135
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.05.006  PMID:29018728
Purpose: Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). The effect of nicorandil and pinacidil on IOP in experimentally induced acute and chronic models of glaucoma and the mechanism of action involved were studied. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits were used for the study. After the measurement of IOP, nicorandil (1%), pinacidil (1%), and pilocarpine as standard (1%) were instilled topically into the left eye. The other eye served as control. Dextrose (5%) was used to induce acute glaucoma. IOP changes were recorded every 15 minutes until the pressure became normal. Freshly prepared a-chymotrypsin solution was introduced in the posterior chamber to induce chronic glaucoma. Rabbits with ocular hypertension were selected for the study. Similar drug solutions were used to study the effect on IOP. Glibenclamide, pilocarpine, and indomethacin (1%) were used to study the mechanism of action of both drugs. The IOPs were measured just prior to drug instillation and at suitable time intervals using a tonometer. Results: Pretreatment with topical nicorandil and pinacidil significantly lowered the rise in IOP in the acute model. Nicorandil and pinacidil initially caused rise in IOP for 15–30 minutes in chronic glaucoma. This was followed by reduction in IOP. Pretreatment with indomethacin and pilocarpine did not modify the effect of nicorandil and pinacidil on IOP. Pretreatment with glibenclamide blocked IOP from the lowering effect of nicorandil and pinacidil. Conclusion: The oculohypotensive effect shown by these drugs appears to be attributable to enhancement of the aqueous humor outflow. This effect is perhaps mediated through potassium channels.
  5 2,155 159
Restrictive problems related to strabismus surgery
Seyhan B Özkan
July-September 2016, 6(3):102-107
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.05.001  PMID:29018723
Strabismus surgery may be responsible for some restrictions in ocular motility that may cause new problems after surgery. Most of the time these restrictions present as a complex motility problem after surgery that requires further treatment. There may be various reasons that cause motility restriction following strabismus surgery. Those are excessive shortening or inadvertent capture of extraocular muscles, transposition procedures and, the most challenging problem, postoperative scar tissue-adhesion formation. In this review the potential reasons for postoperative restrictive problems, preventive measures and finally the treatment options for such problems are overviewed.
  5 433 46
Candida parapsilosis keratitis treated successfully with topical and oral fluconazole
Pei-Hsuan Li, Chun-Chen Chen, Shiow-Wen Liou
July-September 2016, 6(3):155-157
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.04.007  PMID:29018733
A 73-year-old male patient presented with ocular pain, redness, and blurred vision in the left eye, which had been ongoing for more than 2 months. An oval-shaped paracentral corneal ulcer with stromal infiltration and a mild anterior chamber reaction were found. Despite treatment with empiric antibiotics, the lesion progressed and corneal thinning in the middle area was noted. The culture yielded Candida parapsilosis. We therefore prescribed topical 0.2% fluconazole (FCZ) in combination with oral FCZ as an antifungal treatment, following which the stromal infiltration gradually subsided. Complete epithelial-ization was noted on the 8th day after initiating FCZ therapy. There was no recurrent disease in the subsequent 2 years. Our case demonstrates that topical FCZ 0.2% in combination with oral FCZ can successfully treat C. parapsilosis keratitis and result in a good visual outcome.
  4 1,909 114
26-G needle-assisted sutureless glueless intrascleral haptic fixation for secondary ciliary sulcus implantation of three-piece polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens during penetrating keratoplasty
Harinder Singh Sethi, Mayuresh P Naik, Vishnu S Gupta
July-September 2016, 6(3):141-144
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.04.008  PMID:29018730
After tenotomy adjoining 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock limbus, 3-mm-wide partial-thickness scleral tunnels are created at these two diametrically opposite points 3 mm from the limbus such that they reach up to a distance of 1.5 mm from the limbus. Two ab externo sclerotomies are created using 26-G needles on the bed of these partial-thickness scleral tunnels. Precaution is taken to ensure that the positions of the sclerotomies are diagonally opposite each other. A scleral niche is made using a 26-G needle to accommodate the intraocular lens (IOL) haptic later. A 7.5-mm trephine is used to excise the corneal button, and anterior vitrectomy is performed. The haptic of a three-piece polymethylmethacrylate IOL is docked in a bent 26-G needle. It is then pulled out under the partial-thickness scleral tunnel and placed securely in the scleral niche opposite to the haptic. An 8-mm donor corneal button is sutured in place using 16 equidistantly placed 10-0 nylon interrupted sutures.
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Rapid regression of cystoid macular edema associated with cytomegalovirus retinitis in adult acute myeloid leukemia by intravitreal methotrexate combined with oral valganciclovir: A case report with comparison of binocular outcome
Evelyn Jou-Chen Huang, Chih-Ping Wang, Chien-Hsiung Lai, Chih-Chien Chen, Chien-Neng Kuo
July-September 2016, 6(3):145-149
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2015.07.004  PMID:29018731
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a late complication of organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant, the risk of which depends on the degree of immunosuppression. With the institution of preemptive ganciclovir therapy early after transplant, most patients survive episodes of life-threatening CMV infection during the early months (usually the first 3 months) after transplant and hence late onset of CMV disease, such as CMV retinitis, is being recognized more frequently. Direct involvement of the macula or optic head remains the leading cause of visual loss in patients with CMV retinitis, but there are few studies investigating the management of this condition. Herein, we present the case of 28-year-old man who had acute myeloid leukemia and developed CMV retinitis with bilateral cystoid macular edema and optic swelling in the right eye 6 months after bone marrow transplant. He received treatment with intravitreal methotrexate in the right eye in combination with oral valganciclovir. Visual acuity improved 1 month after four weekly injections of intravitreal methotrexate 400 µg/0.1 mL. Resolved disc swelling and regression of macular edema were also observed. By comparing binocular outcome, we present our findings and discuss the possible efficacy and safety of this treatment with respect to regression of anatomical damage and improvement in visual acuity.
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Clinical characteristics and visual outcome of macular hemorrhage in pathological myopia with or without choroidal neovascularization
Kuei-Jung Chang, Cheng-Kuo Cheng, Chi-Hsien Peng
July-September 2016, 6(3):136-140
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.05.007  PMID:29018729
Background/Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcome of macular hemorrhage in pathological myopia with or without choroidal neovascularization. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 55 patients with macular coin hemorrhage who were followed for at least 3 months from January 1997 to December 2013 at Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). All patients were evaluated using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography for the detection of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). We also recorded clinical characteristics such as age, sex, refractory error, and myopic fundus, to determine the relationship between CNV and non-CNV associated macular hemorrhage. Results: A total of 55 patients (30 females, 54.55%) were reviewed. The mean age was 39.7 years old. The CNV group was found to be significantly older than the non-CNV group (p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between sex, visual acuity myopic severity, and the prevalence of fundus findings between CNV and non-CNV groups. Twenty one patients (38.18%) were found to have CNV and were all treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The other 34 patients without CNV were not treated. In both groups, the visual acuity significantly improved (anti-VEGF treated, CNV associated group, 0.7 to 0.39, p = 0.002, and untreated, non-CNV associated group, 0.56 to 0.34, p = 0.0018, respectively). Conclusion: Age significantly correlated to the CNV formation in high myopia with macular hemorrhage. Favorable visual outcomes were found in pathological myopic macular hemorrhage either in the anti-VEGF treated, CNV associated group or in the untreated, non-CNV associated group.
  2 2,049 173
This issue at a glance
Yueh-Ju Tsai
July-September 2016, 6(3):101-101
DOI:10.1016/j.tjo.2016.07.003  PMID:29018722
  - 1,420 133